Open-air toilet: when will it end? Why go to public toilets when one can urinate outside freely? That is surely what this well-dressed young Indian thought. While two Indian musicians were posing, he began to pee on the wall just behind them. There is a very common and deep-seated habit of urinating and defecating outdoors in India. The current Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, campaigned with the slogan “toilets before temples”. He allocated more than $40 billion for a latrine building and behavior change operation called Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Mission). It is a challenge to improve public health drastically knowing that, in the world, diseases caused by poor sanitation and unsafe water kill about 1.4 million children a year!